Section III. Adaptations

Even before Dracula was published as a novel, the text began to be adapted for other purposes, in this case for dramatic one. Stoker staged a dramatic reading of his work in order to secure various rights to his story and characters (rights which later proved of great value to his widow). Through the years, Stoker and then his widow authorized various adaptations of Dracula for the stage and the cinema, and for translation into various foreign languages.

Dracula moved into the public domain in 1962. Since that time both the quantity and variety of adaptations of the text and the utilization of its characters has risen significantly. Numerous Dracula dramas have been written and performed, including a variety of dance and ballet performances, though the later has left only minuscule literary remnants. The first comic book Dracula appeared in the 1960s, as did the first juvenile text. Over the last generation, abridged and rewritten texts of Dracula have been published as part of larger education programs to teach English. The popularity of Dracula in its various forms as an educational tool has also led to the production of a number of Dracula study guides, the Cliff Notes guide aimed at college students being the most popular.

Below, the adaptations of Dracula have been grouped into several categories.

A. Dramatic Adaptations of Dracula

B. Cinematic Adaptations of Dracula

C. Audio Adaptations of Dracula

D. Textual Adaptations of Dracula

E. Graphic Arts Editions of Dracula

F. Dracula Study Guides

The first subsection includes the many dramatic adaptations. Occurring almost simultaneously, Dracula was adapted for the movies, and would go on to become the single literary work most frequently brought to the screen, and the name character being one of the most popular characters around which to build cinematic productions (along side of other such notables as Sherlock Holmes, Tarzan, and Frankenstein's monster). Dracula was on occasion adapted for radio drama, and in the 1960s audio recordings of these dramas and audiobooks of the written text began to be released to the public.

Once in the public domain, Dracula was immediately seized upon as a source for children's literature, and numerous abridged versions, with some of the more gory scenes appropriately cut, have been published as books for children and youth. These texts grade into the many abridgments for use in language teaching.

In each section below, citations are generally grouped into those publications that were authorized during the period that the Dracula copyright was in force (and in the case of the cinematic adaptations, the attempts to skirt the copyright) and those published since 1962.

A. Dramatic Adaptations

Authorized Adaptations

The initial adaptation of the text of Dracula was to the stage. In order to secure his dramatic rights to the characters and the content of his novel, Stoker took two pre-publication copies of the book and with scissors and paste selected material to work into a play. Transitional material was added as needed. He then secured the assistance of members of the drama troupe with whom he worked in the employ of Henry Irving. A single performance of what is generally considered a perfectly awful presentation of Dracula was held on May 18, 1897, with two paying customers. Reportedly, the censors went light on Stoker with the understanding that the reading was to a limited audience and would never be repeated.

The text of Dracula; or, the Undead used what became a four-hour dramatic reading eventually found its way to the British Museum, but on the occasion of the Dracula centennial was revived and published. Also on the centennial of the original reading, a second reading occurred at Jack Straw's Castle, one of the sites mentioned in the novel. The play was published in two formats, the deluxe format being in a slipcase and either numbered or lettered.

Stoker, Bram.
Dracula: or, The Undead. 1897. Published as: Dracula: or The Undead by Bram Stoker. Ed. by Sylvia Starshine. Nottingham: Pumpkin Books, 1997. 277 pp. hb. dj.
Rpt.: Deluxe edition. Slipcase. Limited to 26 lettered and 250 numbered copies.

A more acceptable form of Dracula as a stage drama was made in 1924 by Hamilton Deane. Deane took the part of Van Helsing, as this gave him more stage time. It opened in London on February 14, 1927, at the Little Theatre, and after successful runs in England, despite efforts of critics to kill it, the play was licensed for America. Producer Horace Liveright hired John Balderston to rewrite it, and his play opened on Broadway at the Fulton Theater on October 8, 1927, just in time for Halloween. For many years, the text of the Deane play had been relatively difficult for scholars to access, but in 1993, David Skal brought out an edition in a volume that also included the Balderston text.

Deane, Hamilton, and John L. Balderston.
Dracula: The Ultimate Illustrated Edition of the World-Famous Vampire Play. Ed. by David J. Skal. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 153 pp.

The Balderston text has been readily available, being kept in print by Samuel French through the years. It was reprinted in 1979 by Doubleday on the occasion of its Broadway revival starring Frank Langella and with sets designed by Edward Gorey, that opened at the Martin Beck Theater on October 20, 1979.

Deane, Hamilton, and John L. Balderston.
Dracula. New York: Samuel French, Inc., 1960. 112 pp.
Rpt.: Garden City: Nelson Doubleday, 1979. 58 pp. hb. dj.

Relative to the 1970s Broadway revival, Edward Gorey released a volume of illustrations used for his award-winning stage design.

Gorey, Edward.
A Toy Theatre: Dracula. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1979. 21 leafs. pb. Large format. Spiral bound.

Most recently, a miniature model kit of Gorey's Toy Theatre: Dracula set has been authorized for release by his estate and issued by Pomegranate Communications. The model kit contains the sets of all three acts ready to assemble along with cut-out figures and furniture.

The Balderston version of Dracula would become the basis of Universal's monumental film of 1931 starring Bela Lugosi and the Spanish-language version shot simultaneously. To turn the play into a screenplay, the Balderston text underwent further significant revision in the hands of Louis Bloomfield and Garrett Fort. That further revision (also later adapted by W. D. Richter for the 1979 remake of Dracula starring Frank Langella) was published in 1990. The Balderston version of the play remains popular and both amateur and professional companies regularly revive it.

Riley, Philip J., ed.
MagicImage Filmbooks Presents Dracula (The Original 1931 Shooting Script). Atlantic City, NJ: MagicImage Filmbooks, 1990. Unpaged. Large format.


Dracula in the Public Domain

In the wake of Dracula's entering the public domain in 1962, a number of authors have attempted new versions of the novel for the stage, and Dracula has become, as in the movies, a popular character for a variety of new storylines. Unfortunately, many of the dramatic versions of Dracula, including the various dance/ballet performances do not manifest in the form of a published script. Only the plays and screenplays that have been published are listed below.

Abbot, Rick.
Dracula: The Musical. New York: Samuel French, 1982. 69 pp.
Calcutt, David.
Dracula. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 128 pp. pb. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula, drawn by Simon Fell. Series: Oxford Playscripts.
Day, Kingsley.
Dracula. Chicago: Premiere Society, 1978. This musical opened in Chicago at the Chicago Premiere Society in June.
Dietz, Steven.
Dracula. New York: Dramatists Play Services, 1996. 90 pp. pb.
Donovan, Gene.
I Was a Teen Age Dracula. Chicago: Dramatic Publishing Company, 1958. 90 pp.
Downing, Martin.
The House of Dracula. London: Samuel French, 1992. 71 pp.
Downing, Martin.
Out for the Count; or, How Would You Like Your Stake?: A Vampire Yarn. London: Samuel French, 1986. 40 pp.
DuBrock, Neal.
Countess Dracula! New York: Samuel French, 1980. 68 pp.
Gardiner, John.
The Dracula Spectacula. Music by Andrew Parr. London: Samuel French, 1976. 80 pp.
Graves, Warren.
Mors Dracula. Toronto: Playwrights Canada, 1979.
Hall, Bob, and David Richmond.
The Passion of Dracula New York: Samuel French. 1978. 95 pp.
Hill, Margaret, Charlotte Moor, Jack Murdock.
Dearest Dracula. Dublin, 1965.
Hotchner, Stephen.
Dracula. Denver, CO: Pioneer Drama Service, 1978. 56 pp.
Hotchner, Stephen.
Escape from Dracula's Castle. Denver: Pioneer Drama Service, 1975.
Hotchner, Stephen.
The Possession of Lucy Wenstrom. Denver, CO: Pioneer Drama Service, 1975.
Johnson, Crane.
Dracula. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1976. 41 pp.
Katz, Leon.
Dracula: Sabbat. In Midnight Plays by Leon Katz. New York: Venice, CA: Wavecrest Books, 1992, pp. 133-83.
Kelly, Tim.
Dracula, "The Vampire Play". Schulenberg, TX: I. E. Clark, 1979. Opened in London at the Queen's Theatre August 23, 1978.
Kelly, Tim.
Lady Dracula. Denver, CO: Pioneer Drama Service, 1980. 72 pp.
-----. Seven Wives for Dracula. Denver, CO: Pioneer Drama Service, 1973. 30 pp.
-----. Young Dracula, or, the Singing Bat. Denver, CO: Pioneer Drama Services, 1975. 63 pp.
McKeown, Charles.
Dracula Is Undead and Well and Living in Purfleet. London: English Theatre Guild, 1979. 54 pp.
Mattera, John.
Dracula. Chicago: Dramatic Publishing Company, 1980. 82 pp.
Rpt. in: Dracula and Other Plays of Adventure and Suspense. New York: Scholastic, 1986, pp. 101-27.
Needle, Jan.
Dracula. HarperCollins, 2000. 95 pp. pb. With resource material by Viv Gardner. Ser.: Collins Classics plus. Cover: Drawing by Zhenya Matysiak, Dracula in oval with castle and moon.
Nichols, Christopher P.
Dracula: The Death of Nosferatu. Woodstock, IL: Dramatic Publishing Company, 1991. 42 pp.
O'Dwyer, Lawrence.
Count Dracula; or, A Musical Mania from Transylvania. Theatre Three, 1974.
Ronald, Bruce.
Dracula, Baby. Music by Claire Strauch; Lyrics by John Jakes. Chicago: Dramatic Publishing Company, 1970. 104 pp. Based on Stoker
Saunders, Dudley.
Dracula's Treasure. Anchorage, KY: Anchorage, 1975.
Snee, Dennis.
Almost the Bride of Dracula; or, "Why the Count Remains a Bachelor. Boston: Baker's Plays, 1980.
-----. The Count Will Rise Again; or, Dracula in Dixie. Boston: Baker's Plays, 1980.
Sorescu, Marin.
Vlad Dracula the Impaler. Trans. by Dennis Deletant. London/Wayland, MA: Forest Books, 1987. 111 pp.
Tiller, Ted.
Count Dracula. New York: Samuel French, 1972. 147 pp.
Thornton, Janet, and John Godber, adapted for the stage by.
Dracula. London: Werner/Chappell Plays, 1998. 96 pp. pb.
Wellman, Max.
Dracula. In Max Wellman. The Land Beyond the Forest: Dracula and Swoop. Los Angeles: Sun and Moon Press, 1995. 99 pp.
Wheeler, Jerry B.
Dracula Sucks. New York: Samuel French, 1969.
Youngson, Jeanne.
The Dracula Doll. In A Child's Garden of Vampires. New York: Count Dracula Fan Club, 1980.


B. Cinematic Adaptations of Dracula

Unauthorized Silent Adaptations 

1. Dracula

1920? Russia.

Rumors persist that a Russian version of Dracula was attempted around 1920. If such was the case, it would be the first cinematic adaptation of Dracula. However, no copies or records of such a film have survived, and its existence is in doubt.

2. Drakula

1921. Hungary.

Reportedly, a Hungarian version of Dracula was completed in 1921 and released in 1922. It was shown primarily in Hungary but, possibly because of the court case surrounding Nosferatu, shown almost nowhere else. Any surviving copies and related records were lost during World War II as has information on the nature of the adaptation and the names of the actors and the director.

3. Nosferatu: Eine Symphonie des Gravens

1922 b&w [Prana Films]. v Count Orlock (Max Schreck); Cast: Alexander Granach, Gustav von Wangerheim, Greta Schroeder. Dir.: F. W. Murnau.

On of the most well-known versions of Dracula today, Nosferatu's place in cinematic history is secure, though its role in the development of the contemporary Dracula myth is often misunderstood. Murnau attempt to steal Stoker's story, but immediately after the film's release, he was challenged in the court by Florence Stoker, who was able to halt its showing and have copies of the movie seized by the German government. Only a few public showing in Germany had occurred and only a few very private screenings of Nosferatu occurred prior to Dracula's moving into the public domain in 1962. Thus, the film's effect upon the pre-1960 history of the vampire cinema was negligible.

Murnau made a most creative adaptation of the plot of Dracula. The thrust of the story was moved from London to Breman, the names of the major characters altered (for example, Count Dracula was renamed Graf Orlock), and some minor elements of the plot (such as the role of rats) emphasized. The most famous scene occurred near the end of the movie when Orlock disintegrated in the dawning light of the sun, a scene interestingly paralleled in the ending of the 1958 Horror of Dracula by Hammer Studios.

Once in the public domain, under its English title, Nosferatu: A Symphony of Terror was re-released on 8mm film and is currently available in both DVD and VHS formats. Hailed as one of the great films of the silent era, Nosferatu is regularly shown in film classes, and Murnau praised for his many innovations and effective communication of horror.

Authorized Sound Adaptations

4. Dracula

1931 b&w {Universal]. v Dracula (Bela Lugosi); Cast: Helen Chandler, Edward van Sloan, Dwight Frye, David Manners. Dir. Tod Browning.

The most important vampire movie ever made starred Bela Lugosi in the part that made him famous and forever typecast by the part he played. The movie brought to the screen a revised version of the play originally written by Hamilton Deane and revised by John Balderston for the Broadway stage. Lugosi, an immigrant from Hungary who spoke little English, had starred in the Broadway production, but landed the part in the movie only after other nominees of the part proved unavailable.

The script for the 1931 movie version (and its Spanish version shot simultaneously) was based on John Balderston's revision of the original Hamilton Deane play. Initially, Universal Studios hired Louis Bloomfield to write a screenplay for what would have been a silent movie with the idea that the venerable Lon Chaney, Sr., would assume the title role. However, Chaney was ill and passed away on August 26, 1930, before the film could be shot. Bloomfield's draft was then given to Dudley Murphy who revised the screenplay for a sound production. Murphy's version more closely approached Balderston's stage play. His script was then given to Garrett Fort, who made the final revisions for what now had become a full-fledged talking motion picture. Directing the movie was Tod Browning.

The final product introduced a number of new ideas into Stoker's story, such as transforming Dracula's London residence into Carfac "Abbey." It also provided answers for some of the questions Stoker left unanswered most notably the source of Renfield’s madness. The movie opens with Renfield, not Jonathan Harker, traveling to Transylvania in search of Count Dracula. After completing the sale of property in England to the Count, he is victimized by Dracula’s three vampire brides—the reason for his insanity and his attachment to the Count.

Dracula opened on Friday the 13th, in February 1931, and had a very successful eight-day run. Then it, along with a silent version, which had been prepared for those theaters not yet capable of showing talkies, it opened nationally with little fanfare. In spite of the lack of publicity and the panning by critics (who as a rule tend to dislike horror movies), Dracula became the largest grossing movie of the year for Universal.

Screen Plays

Riley, Philip J., ed. Dracula. Atlantic City, J: MagicImage Filmbooks, 1993. pb. Large format.

Note: This volume includes a copy of Louis Bloomfield's original draft for Dracula as well as the finished screenplay by Garrett Fort.


5. Dracula (Spanish version)

1931 b&w [Universal]. v Dracula (Carlos Villarias); Cast: Lupita Tovar, Barry Norton, Pablo Alvarez Rubio, Eduardo Arozamena. Dir. George Medford.

Simultaneously with the filming of Tod Browning's version of Dracula, the same stage setting was used for a second version of Dracula using a Spanish translation of Fort's screenplay. It was widely distributed throughout Latin America.

The Spanish version proved to be extremely popular and was replayed in theaters through the decade of the 1930s. However, after World War II, Universal lost interest in the Latin American market and failed both to renew its copyright and to make extra preservation copies. A copy of the film survived in the U.S. Library of Congress, but when looked at after many decades was found to have a decomposed third reel. However, in 1989, vampire writer David Skal discovered a complete copy in Cuba and became the instrument of a new publication of a copy of the movie in America. It was initially shown in the United States in 1992, the first screening in North America since the 1930s. It was subsequently released on video with English subtitles.

6. Drakula in Istanbul

1953 b&w TU [Demirag]. v Drakula (Atif Kaptan); Cast: Annie Bell. Dir: Mehmet Muhtar.

Originally released as Drakula Istanbulda, Dracula in Istanbul is a legendary Turkish movie talked about but almost never seen even by the most dedicated hard-core vampire fans. It was the first non-western adaptation of Dracula and was released for show in Turkey but was never shown in America or Great Britain.

In this version, an accountant named Amzi becomes Drakula’s personal secretary. Upon his arrival at Castle Drakula, he is greeted by the count’s assistant, a hunchback, He later discovers that Drakula is a vampire. He leaves the castle, but Drakula follows him back to Istanbul where he attacks Amzi’s family. Eventually Amzi and a Van Helsing substitute locate Drakula’s hiding place and kill him.

Drakula in Istanbul is unique in its linking the title character to the fifteenth-century Vlad the Impaler, taking Ali Riga Seifi's Kastgli Voyvoda (The Impaling Voivode) as its source on Vlad. It also incorporates much dialogue directly from the novel in an attempt to be faithful to Stoker.

7. Horror of Dracula

1958 col [Hammer Films]. v Dracula (Christopher Lee). Cast; Peter Cushing, Michael Gough, Melissa Stribling, Carol Marsh, Valerie Gaunt. Dir: Terence Fisher.

Second in importance only to Universal’s Dracula (1931), The Horror of Dracula transformed actor Christopher Lee into a star and made him second only to Bela Lugosi as the person most identified with the part of Dracula. The movie also initiated a new cycle of vampire and horror movies characterized by their gothic setting, beautiful women in various stages of undress, and the full use of color.

By the end of World War II, Universal had lost interest in the horror genre. In the mid 1950s, British upstart Hammer Films picked up Universal’s licenses and began making their new versions of the classic horror movies. After an initial version of Frankenstein, they turned to Dracula. For the film, they chose Terence Fisher as director and Jimmy Sangster as screenwriter. The pair was assisted by the new freedoms afforded filmmakers. Dracula showed his fangs for the first time, and the director/writer team began the exploration of the relationship of vampirism and sexuality.

Sangster chose not to relay on either the stage play or the Bloomfield/Fort text. His completely new script began with Jonathan Harker arriving at Castle Dracula as the new castle librarian. He immediately encounters a beautiful female dressed in negligee. She bites Harker transforming him into a vampire. We later learn that Harker came to Castle Dracula as part of a covert operation planned by Van Helsing to kill the vampire. However, Dracula flees, and Van Helsing is forced to stake his former associate.

Shifting the scene from Transylvania to England, Sangster offers a new arrangement of the novel's characters. Lucy and Mina are now sisters. Mina is married to Arthur Holmwood, and Lucy is the fiancee of Jonathan Harker. John Seward, Renfield, and Quincey Morris do not appear. Dracula turns his attention first to Lucy whose picture he had taken from Harker before leaving the castle. Van Helsing arrives on the scene to thwart his plans and stakes Lucy after she is bitten.

Dracula then kidnaps Mina and heads for his castle. This actions sets the stage for one of the more famous scenes in the several Dracula movies, the fight between Dracula and Van Helsing. Dracula appears to have defeated Van Helsing but pauses a moment to savor the victory. In that moment, Van Helsing rushes across the room and rips the drapes from the window. Then using a cross, he forces Dracula into the sunlight.

Horror of Dracula is currently available in both VHS and DVD formats.

8. Ahkea KKots (The Bad Flower)

1961 b&w KO [Sunglim Films]. v Dracula (Yechoon Lee); Cast: Chimi Kim;. Dir. Yongmin Lee.

Just a few years after the success of the Horror of Dracula, Hammer released its rights to the Jimmy Sangster screenplay for a remake by a South Korean film company. This eighth remake of the Dracula story, with the screenplay revised by Yongmin Lee, not only follows the plot of the Horror of Dracula, but actually incorporated footage from it in the final version. The film was moderately successful in Korea but few westerners have ever seen it.

Dracula in the Public Domain

9. Dracula

1969 b&w [BBC-TV]. v Dracula (Denholm Elliott], Lucy (Susan George); Cast Corin Redgrave, Susanne Neve, Bernard Archard,, James Maxwell. Dir. Patrick Dromgoole.

The first adaptation of Dracula for television starred veteran film actor Denholm Elliott as the Count. This version of the familiar story is remembered as one of the most faithful presentations of the novel's plot and notable for the closing scene in which Dracula disintegrates. Informally, VHS copies of this version are in circulation.

10. El Conde Dracula

1970 col SP/IT/GE [Feniz/Korona/ Filmar/Towers of London]. v Dracula (Christopher Lee); Cast: Klaus Kinski, Herbert Lom, Soledad Miranda, Maria Rohm. Dir: Jesus Franco.

Christopher Lee made a set of Dracula movies with Hammer through the 1960s, but opted to make an additional production in order, reportedly, to portray the Count in a manner that was more closely aligned to the original novel. Director Franco adopted a storyline that followed the novel in most respects, and Lee consulted the text to make his appearance more resemble the physical description of Stoker’s Count (though omitting the hairy palms and the pointed ears and fingers).

El Conde Dracula was also released as Count Dracula, Bram Stoker's Count Dracula, Dracula 71, The Nights of Dracula, and Nacht Wenn Dracula Erwacht. As Count Dracula, it is available in VHS and DVD formats. 

11. Dracula

1973 col CA [Canadian Broadcasting Company]. v Dracula (Norman Welsh); Cast: Blair Brown, Nehemiah Persoff. Dir: Jack Nixon Browne.

In this made-for-television movie, the second attempt to bring Dracula into the peoples' homes, Norman Welsh donned prominent fangs, a cape, and white hair to portray the Count. This adaptation, originally aired on the Canadian television series “Purple Playhouse,” is remembered for including Dracula’s walk down the castle wall and his final staking by Van Helsing. While copies circulate informally in VHS format, this remains one of the most difficult versions of Dracula to locate.

12. Dracula (Palance)

1973 col [Dan Curtis Productions/Universal]. v: Dracula (Jack Palance), Fiona Lewis (Lucy); Cast: Simon Ward, Nigel Davenport, Penelope Horner, Murray Brown. Dir: Dan Curtis.

After his success with the vampire series Dark Shadows and the made for television movie Nightstalker, producer Dan Curtis turned to make a new version of Dracula. This made-for-television production, with a screenplay by the famous horror writer Richard Matheson was, at the time of its release, the most faithful of the several feature films to the novel. Matheson bypassed previously used scripts and developed his inspiration directly from the novel and from the recently popularized identification of the historic Vlad the Impaler with the fictional Count Dracula following the publication of In Search of Dracula by Raymond T. McNally and Radu Florescu (1972).

Matheson attempted to solve several problems not resolved in the novel. For, example, why did Dracula choose Lucy Westenra as his first victim? Initial action in the movie occurs at Castle Dracula whose main hall is dominated by a painting of Vlad on horseback. In one corner of that painting included a picture of a women who could have been Lucy’s twin. Dracula becomes obsessed with finding his lost love and abandoning Jonathan to the vampire women at the castle, he traveled to England. There he transformed Lucy into a creature of the night, and, once she was killed, turned in revenge on Van Helsing and the others whom he held responsible for her death. Their battle ends in his being impaled by Van Helsing.

This popular version is readily available in both VHS and DVD formats.

13. Count Dracula

1978 col [British Broadcasting Company]. v Count Dracula (Louis Jourdan); Cast: Frank Finlay, Susan Penhaligon, Judi Bowker, Mark Burns.

One of the more faithful retellings of Dracula originally shown on British television and later cut into three segments for viewing in the United States. The story follows Jonathan Harker’s trip to Transylvania and his encounter with the thoroughly continental Dracula (portrayed by Louis Jourdan). Dracula comes to London to take Lucy but is opposed by Drs. Seward and Van Helsing. Lucy’s death convinces the men, including Texan Quincey P. Morris that Dracula is a vampire. Their counter attack leads to Castle Dracula where Van Helsing has the honor of finally killing Dracula with a stake. A most realistic version of the novel, in the America showing, the scene of the three vampire women attacking the baby was cut. Prior to Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1992), Count Dracula was the version of Dracula, which most closely followed the book’s storyline and included all but one of the major characters. It also included very forceful scenes of Mina’s drinking Dracula’s blood (a necessary scene for understanding how vampires are created) and of her being branded with the eucharistic wafer.

14. Dracula

1978 col MX Cast: Enrique Alvarez Felix.

Little is known of this obscure Mexican remake

15. Dracula

1979 col [Universal]. v Dracula (Frank Langella); Cast: Laurence Olivier, Donald

Pleasence, Kate Nelligan. Dir: John Badham.

For this fifteenth remake of Dracula, screenwriter W. D. Richter rewrote the play by Hamilton Deane and John Balderston to present Dracula as a magnetically attractive seducer, a part ideally suited for actor Frank Langella, who had been starring in the revival of Dracula on the Broadway stage. Skipping the scenes in Castle Dracula, which had opened the earlier Universal Dracula with Bela Lugosi, this lavish version opened with the wreck of the ship bringing Dracula to England. Dracula leaves the ship as a wolf and in one of the more sensual moments in all of the movies slowly transforms back into a human-like being, though this scene will be rivaled by a later scene when Dracula shares his blood with his beloved Lucy. He woos and charms his female victims, though he is not above a few supernatural parlor tricks if it serves his purpose, and saves his disdain for those males who would oppose him.

Dracula meets his nemesis in the person of Abraham Van Helsing. He is killed by being hoisted to the top of the ship upon which he was about to escape where he slowly fried in the sunlight.

Dracula is available in both VHS and DVD formats.

15. Nosferatu the Vampyre

1979 col [20th Century Fox]. v The Count (Klaus Kinski); Cast: Isabelle Adjani. Dir: Werner Herzog.

Following its rediscovery in the 1960s, the original 1922 Nosferatu became a legend among vampire fans. It had introduced new elements to vampire mythology, such as the destructive power of the sun, and left a lasting image in the rat-like vampire Count Orlock. In 1979, a full-color sound remake of Nosferatu was shot simultaneously in English and in German, though the shorter English original lacks some material that provides continuity to the story line.

With Dracula in the public domain, there was no need to continue the attempted disguise of the novel perpetrated by F. W. Murmau in his silent version. The names in Stoker’s novel were returned to the characters in the movie, though both the alterations of the plot and Dracula’s horrific appearance as originally portrayed by Max Schreck were retained. The movie had its high moments but seemed to move much to slowly for sophisticated 1970s moviegoers. It came off poorly against its 1979 rivals—Dracula with Frank Langella and the comedic Love at First Bite.

Nosferatu is available in both the VHS and DVD formats. A novelization of Werner Herzog ‘s screenplay was written by Paul Monette. The German version of the movie was released as Nosferatu, Phantom der Nacht.

16. Bram Stoker's Dracula

1992 col [Columbia]. v Dracula (Gary Oldman), Lucy (Sadie Frost); Cast: Winona Ryder, Anthony Hopkins, Kennu Reeves, Cary Elwes, Richard E. Grant, William Campbell. Dir: Francis Coppola.

This most heralded of screen adaptation of Bram Stoker’s novel came with a cast of Hollywood stars, notable special effects, an expensive advertising budget, and the capable directing skill of Francis Ford Coppola. It broke attendance/income records for Columbia. Advertised as the adaptation most faithful to the novel, it was the first movie to include all of the major characters from the book and followed the plot most closely (hence the title variation). It also made major innovations to the book's storyline by tying Dracula to Prince Vlad Tepes and creating a love interest between Dracula and Mina Murray.

Bram Stoker’s Dracula opens with a scene from the end of Vlad’s rulership when the Turkish army is overrunning his land. Coppola drew on the legend of Vlad’s wife committing suicide. Angered at her inability (according to Eastern Orthodox Christian thought) to join him in heavenly bliss, he curses God and becomes a vampire. Following the introductory scene, the movie continues with Jonathan Harker's trip to Castle Dracula to complete the sale of properties in London to Dracula. While Harker is left to Dracula's women, the audience is introduced to the rest of the cast of characters in London, including Lucy and Mina, and Lucy’s three suitors, Arthur Holmwood, Dr. John Seward, and Quincey Morris. After Dracula arrives and attacks Lucy, Seward calls in his old friend Dr. Abraham Van Helsing.

In the end, after Dracula causes Lucy's death and then attacks Mina, the men unite against him. Tracing him back to Castle Dracula, they fatally wound him, but allow him to die in some semblance of peace in the arms of Mina.

Bram Stoker's Dracula is available in both VHS and DVD. The screenplay by Coppola and James V. Hart was published, and Hart joined Fred Saberhagen (who had written his own series of Dracula novels) in producing a novelization. Simultaneously, a graphic arts adaptation was produced by Roy Thomas and Mike Mignola.

Coppola, Francis Ford, and James V. Hart.
Bram Stokers Dracula: The Film and the Legend. New York: Newmarket Press, 1992. 172 pp. pb. Large format.
Rpt.: London: Pan Books, 1992. 172 pp. pb. Large format.
Saberhagen, Fred, and James Hart.
Bram Stoker's Dracula. New York: Signet, 1992. 190 pp. hb. dj.
Rpt.: New York: New American Library, 1992. 301 pp. pb.
Rpt.: London: Pan, 1992. 301 pp. pb.

16. Dracula: Dead and Loving It

1995 col [Brooksfilms; Castle Rock]. v Dracula (Leslie Nielsen). Cast: Mel Brooks, Steven Weber, Amy Yasbeck, Harvey Korman, Peter MacNicol. Dir.

A parody of Dracula from Mel Brooks, who also plays Van Helsing. The movie takes the 1931 Universal production as its basic storyline, but offers jibes as the more recent productions as well.

Dracula: Dead and Loving It is available in VHS and DVD formats.

C. Audio Adaptations

During the years that Dracula was still in copyright, it was occasionally adapted for presentation as a radio drama (most notably a 1938 broadcast by Orson Wells), but not until after 1962 were readings of the text and dramatic presentations originally prepared for radio broadcasts made available to the general public in successive formats—long-playing vinyl records, audio cassettes, and most recently, cds. Spurring the adaptation of Dracula to audio was the rapid development of the books-on-tape industry in the 1990s.

Long-Playing Records

Dracula. Dramatized by Barbara McCaughey et al. Spoken Arts. Single lp. SAC 1087.

Four Scenes from Dracula. Read by David McCallum and Carole Shelley. Caedmon Records. Single lp. TC 1468.


Dracula. Dramatized by Orson Wells. Mark 56 Records. Single lp. Series: Original Radio Broadcasts

Audio Cassettes


Dracula. Publication of Golden Age radio program. Metacom. Single cassette. Series: Radio Reruns

Dracula. Read by Erik Bauerfield et al. Soundelux/Mind’s Eye Audio Publishing, #9 781559 351898.   Cover: Dracula with bat and moon. Series: Mind's Eye Classic.


Dracula. Scarlet Productions. Single Cassette. Cover: Blue and white drawing of seated Dracula with large bat.


Read by Errol Ross et al.   Jabberwocky/The Mind’s Eye, 2 cassettes, #0 88142-193-6

       Cover; Black lettering on red background.


Dracula. Dramatized by Bruce Alexander (narrator) et al. London Records. 2 cassettes. Argo 1233.

Dracula. Dramatized by Bruce Alexander (narrator) et al. Newman Communications. 2 cassettes. #20104.

Dracula. Dramatized by Barbara McCaughey et al. Spoken Arts. Single cassette. SAC 1087. Cover picture from the Airmont paperback edition of Dracula


Dracula (Longman’ Classics abridged version). Read by Valentine Dyall. Longman, one cassette, #0 582 01000 4. Cover: Louis Jourdan as Dracula.


Classic Tales of Horror. Dracula read by Donald Pickering. Durkin Hayes Publishing. 2 cassettes. LFP 7236-7. Omnibus edition with Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde. Cover: Face of Dracula & Mr. Hyde.

Dracula. Read by Donald Pickering. Durkin Hayes Publishing. single cassette. TAB 025. Cover: Face with power streaming out of mouth.


Dracula. Read by Stan Winiarski. Books to Go/B&B Books, 3 cassettes, #0 37534 39199 1. Cover: Drawing of Dracula on castle stairs.


Dracula. Read by Robert Powell. BBC Radio/Bantam Doubleday. 2 cassettes. Cover: Young man in period clothing.

Bram Stoker's Original Dracula. Read by Robert Powell. BBC Enterprises. 2 cassettes. ZBBC 1256. Cover: Bela Lugosi.

Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Read by Richard E. Grant. Penguin-High Bridge Audio. 2 cassettes. #0-453-00786-4. Cover: Dracula gargoyle from Coppola movie.

Dracula. Read by Donald Pickering. Paperback Audio. Durkin Hayes Publishing (1989,1992). single cassette. #7621. Cover: Urbanscape from church rooftop.

Dracula. Read by Edward Woodward.        Redback Audiobooks, 2 cassettes, #9 781857 220018. Cover: Youthful Count Dracula.

Dracula. Read by Edward Woodward. Dove Audio. 2 cassettes. #42100. Cover: Dracula with castle.

Dracula (Heineman abridged version). Heineman English Language Teaching. Single cassette, #0 435 27289 6. Cover: Dracula in doorway.

Dracula. Dramatized by Barbara McCaughey et al. Musical Heritage Society. Single cassette. #313199X

Tales of Classic Horror. Dracula. Read by Donald Pickering. Paperback Audio. Durkin Hayes Publishing. 2 cassettes. #1858170419. Omnibus edition with Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde.


Dracula. Read by Richard E. Grant. Penguin Audio Books, 2 cassettes. Series: Penguin Classics. Cover: Henry Irving as Mephistopheles.

Dracula. Read by Christopher Lee. EMI Records/Music for Pleasure. 2 cassettes. #7243 8 284754 0. Series: Timeless Classics. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

Dracula. Pickwick Group. Single cassette. PCC 408. Series: Pickwick Classic Collection.


Dracula. Performed by David McCallum and Carole Shelley. Harper. Single cassette. HC1468. Series: Harper Classics. Cover: Illus. by Sara Belcher.

Dracula. Read by Tom Casaletto et al. Brilliance Corporation, 6 cassettes, #1-56100-593-2. Series: Classic Collection. Cover: Dracula with fangs showing.

Dracula. Read by Ian Brooker. The Times Audio Library. 2 cassettes. CSWMC 208.

Three Classic Horror Stories. Read by Richard E. Grant. Penguin Audio Books. 6 cassettes. #0-14-080099-1. Omnibus edition with Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde and Frankenstein.


Dracula. Read by Anthony Valentine. Orbis Publishing. 2 cassettes. TC NCG 029. Series: Talking Classics.

Dracula. Read by Anthony Valentine. Pickwick International. Single Cassette. PTB 631. Series: Pickwick Talking Books.

Dracula. Read by Ian Brooker. Smithbooks Audio Cassettes. 2 cassettes. TM 09.

Dracula: a Ballet in Three Acts. Music by Richard Masloski. Richard Masloski. 2 cassettes. Cover: White lettering on black and white drawing of Dracula's Castle.

Tales of Terror. Dracula read by Eric Bauersfeld. Soundelux Audio Publishing. Four cassettes. #155935-198-5. Series: The Classic Author Collection. Omnibus edition with Frankenstein.


Dracula. Petrini Editore. Single cassette. Distributed with Dracula as retold by M. G. Carrà (Torino, Italy: Petrini Editore, 1997).


Dracula. Dramatized by Frederick Jaeger et al.    BBC Radio Collection. 2 cassettes. ZBBC 2040.

Dracula. Dramatized by Jeremy Gage et al. Big Radio Productions. 8 cassettes. #1-888928-00-X.

Dracula. Dramatized by the St. Charles Players. Monterey Soundworks. 2 cassettes. #313104. Series: Audio Theatre.

Dracula. Cideb Editrice/The Black Cat. 2 cassettes. Sold with Dracula as adapted by Kenneth Brodey. Dracula. (Genoa, Italy: Cideb Editrice, 1998).     Cover: Drawing of Dracula in front of gothic archway.


Dracula. Read by Orson Wells et al. Adventures in Old Time Radio. Radio Spirits. Single Cassette. #7031. From Mercury Theatre of the Air of July 11, 1938. Cover: Count Orloc from Nosferatu.


Dracula. Read by Susan Adams and Alexander Spencer. State Street Press. 10 cassettes. Cover: woman with bite marks. 

CD Editions


Dracula. Read by Edward Woodward. Dove Audio. 3 cds.


Dracula. Read by Anthony Valentine. Orbis Publishing. 2 cds. TC NCD 029. Series: Talking Classics.


Bookshop. Waltham, MA: CD Titles. Single cd. Omnibus cd with Dracula included among a number of books. Cover: Shelf of books.


Dracula: Truth and Terror. Annotations by Raymond T. McNally. S. Burlington, VT: Voyager. Single cd. Cover: Stake in coffin lid.

Dracula. Dramatized by Brian Cox et al. Nexos. 3 cds. #9626341157. Cover: Dracula's castle.


The Curse of Dracula. Read by Jennifer Crumbley-Boner. Jordan Williams et al. Sound Mind Theatre. Single cd. HAS632. Cover: Dracula with woman holding a cross. Note: A retelling of the Dracula story, now set in Atlanta, Georgia rather than London.

Dracula. Read by Christopher Lee (in 1965). Chiller Theatre. 2 cds. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

Horror Masterwork. Text. British Enclassica. Single cd. Includes Dracula with a number of additional horror titles and biographies of all the authors


Dracula. Read by Orson Wells et al. Adventures in Old Time Radio. Radio Spirits. single cd. #7031. From Mercury Theatre of the Air of July 11, 1938.   Cover: Count Orloc from Nosferatu.

Dracula. Dramatized by Lorne Green et al. Scenario Productions. Single cd. Stage Series #12


Dracula. Dramatized by Orson Wells et al.        Monster Kid. Single cd.

Dracula. Dramatized by Orson Wells et al.        Old Time Radio Memories. Single cd. C5026.


D. Textual Adaptations of Dracula

With Dracula in the public domain, in the years since 1962 a wide variety of adaptations of the text have been made primarily aimed at introducing Dracula to younger readers. These adaptations include simple abridged editions of the text to adaptations that include significant rewritings by specialists in language and texts for children and/or those learning English as a second language of varying reading levels. The different juvenile editions have also occasioned the emergence of many artists to render further interpretations of Dracula from simple line drawings to full color illustrations. The first adaptation of Dracula for children appears to have been made in 1965 in an abbreviated volume that also contained adaptations of the several other famous monster horror stories.


During the 1980s and 1990s, there was a significant consolidation of the publishing industry into several large multinational corporations. One result was the passing of Dracula texts among various divisions of these publishing giants and their appearance under various seeming unrelated imprints. It has also been common for both British and American editions of these adapted texts to be issued.

Below, all of the known editions of each text are listed, though mere reprintings are not cited unless there is a significant alteration, such as a change of cover art. Interestingly enough, on the hundredth anniversary of the original publication of Dracula, the British publisher Constable issued a new edition of Dracula, an abridged version. This was the first new Constable version in more than eighty years.


           Anon.  Dracula.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.  Series: World’s Classics, IELP Readers. Book 1. 

           -----.  Dracula.  Manchester: World International, 1985. 61 pp.  Series: Horror Stories.

           Reprinted: 1987

           -----.  Dracula.  New York: Gallery Books/W. H. Smith Publishers, 1990. 12 pp.  hb.  (Series: Classic Pop-Ups.). Cover: vampire bat.

                  Rpt.: Melbourne, Aust.: Budget Books, 1990. 12 pp. hb. boards. Cover: vampire bat.

           -----.  Dracula.  London: Grandreams, 1990.

           -----.  Dracula.  London: Collins/Longman, 1992. 32 pp.

           -----.  Classic Collection of Horror Stories.  Manchester, UK: Cliveden House, 1987. Pp. 6-61.

                  Rpt.: New York: Exeter Books, 1987. Pp. 6-61.

           -----.  Monsters: The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Frankenstein, Dracula.  New York: Wonder Books, 1965. 48 pp. PB. Oversize. Cover: Graphic art representation of Frankenstein, the Mummy, the Wolfman, and Dracula.

           Note: Dracula included on pages 17-37.

           Abbott, Tony.  Dracula: Trapped in Transylvania.  New York: Hyperion, 2002. 130 pp. pb. Series: Cracked Classics. 

           Alderson, Jim, adapted by.  Dracula.  London: Bull’s Eye Books/Hutchinson, 1978, 125 pp. pb.

           Cover: Dracula with wolf.

           Rpt.:  London: Sparrow Books, 1983   124 pp.

           Rpt.:  London: S. Thornes, 1990. 128 pp.

           Rpt.: Tokyo: Yohan Publications, 1985. 125 pp. pb.

           Baring, Tom, adapted by.  Dracula.  New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1975. 96 pp. pb. Series: Horror Classics Library. Cover by Tom Baring. Cover: Dracula with bat.

           Rpt.: London: Corgi Books, 1976. 96 pp. pb.

           Baudet, Stephanie.  Dracula.  London: Madcap/Andre Deutsch, 1999. 123 pp. pb.  Cover: bats flying in front of Castle.

           Blaisdell, Bob, adapted by.  Dracula.  Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997. 92 pp. pb.

           Rpt.: Toronto: General Publishing Co., 1997

           Rpt.: London: Constable and Company, 1997.

           Brodey, Kenneth, adapted by. Dracula.  Genoa, Italy: Cideb Editrice, 1998. 144 pp. pb. pb. Sold with accompanying cassette set.

           -----.  Dracula.  Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 2003. 143 pp. pb. Cover: Dracula with bat. Illust.: Gianni De Conno. Sold with accompanying cd.

Burke, John.  The Second Hammer Horror Film Omnibus.  London: Pan Books, 1967. 144 pp. pb. Cover: Dracula with open shirt. Pan Books M2221.

Rpt.: .  London: Pan Books, 1974. 144 pp. pb. Cover: Dracula peers through dripping blood.

           Cameron, Joan, adapted by.  Dracula.  London: Loughborough Ladybird, 1984. 51 pp. hb. (Series: Ladybird Horror Classics.)  Illustrated by Angus McBride. Cover: Dracula arising out of coffin.

           Boxed set with Tell-a-Tale cassette.

           Rpt.: 1997. Note: the words "Classic Horror" have been added above the book's title.

           Carrà, M. G., retold by.  Dracula. Torino, Italy: Petrini Editore, 1997. 95 pp. pb. Illust. by C. Ruffino. Cover: Dracula with Mina and Lucy at Whitby. Distributed with cassette tape.

           Rpt. 2004.

           Carlson, Dale, abridged by.  Dracula.   New York: Noble and Noble, 1970. 143 pp.  hb.  Falcon Series.  Edited by Virginia F. Allen. Cover: Dracula

           Rpt: New York: Noble and Noble, 1970. 143 pp. pb. Falcon Series.  Cover: Dracula

           Chatwin, Barbara, adapted by.  Dracula.  Milan, Italy:  La Spiga Languages, 1994. 31 pp. pb. (Series: First Readers Activity Books.)  Cover: Graphic drawing of Dracula with bat.

           Clark, Simon, adapted by.  Dracula.  Kuala Lumpur: Heineman Educational Books (Asia), 1976. 111 pp.

           Davies, Pam, adapted by.  Dracula.  London: Richmond Publishing, 1997. 128 pp. pb. Cover: Dracula in doorway.

           Dickens, Doris, abridged by.  Dracula.  London: Armada, 1987. 125 pp. pb.

           Cover: Dracula in graveyard.

           Rpt.:  London:  Classics/Diamond Books, 1993. 125 pp. pb.  Cover: Dracula as batlike creature.

           -----.  Dracula.  London: Armada, 1988. 127 pp. pb. Series: Armada Classics.  Illustrations by Wayne Anderson. Cover: Dracula as batlike.

           Dolman, Jane, adapted by.  Dracula.  Milan, Italy: La Spiga Languages, 1993. 30 pp. pb. Series: Easy Readers Activity Books.  Cover: Dracula arising from a coffin.

           Green, Dennis, retold by.  Paint Me the Story of Dracula.  New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1976. 46 pp. pb.

           Hildebrandt, Greg, illustrated by.  Dracula.  Morris Plains, NJ: Unicorn Publishing House, 1993. 40 pp. hb. Cover: Dracula climbing down castle wall.

           Rpt.: New York: Barnes & Noble, 1996. 40 pp. hb. Cover: Dracula climbing down castle wall.

           Hill, L. A., adapted by.  Dracula.  Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1994. 121 pp. pb. Illus. by K. Y. Chan. Series: Oxford Progressive English Readers, Grade 5.

           -----.  Dracula.  Madrid: Editorial Alhambra, 1987. 157 pp. pb. Illust. By Maite Martínez.   Cover: Dracula with full moon and bat.

           Hobson, Wendy, abridged by.  Dracula.  Cape Town, S.Af.: Purnell Books, 1989.  Illus. by Julek Heller. Series: Nightmares.

           Humphries, Tudor, illustrated by. Text  by Jo Fletcher-Watson.  Dracula.  UK: Dorling Kindersley, Ltd., 1997. 64 pp. hb. Cover: a Balding Dracula holding a lantern and castle ruins.

           Rpt.: New York: DK Publishing, 1997. 64 pp. hb. Series: Eyewitness Classics.

           Rpt.: Golton, ON: Fenn Publishing Company, 1998. 64 pp. hb. Series: Deluxe Classics.

           Also reprinted in German, Hungarian and Italian editions.

           Hutchinson, Emily, adapted by.  Dracula.  Costa Mesa, CA: Saddleback Pubishing, 1999. 80 pp. pb. Cover: Head of Dracula with castle in background.

           Jones, Lewis, abridged by.   Dracula.  Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, UK: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1993. 39 pp. hb. (Series: Nelson Readers. Level 1.)  Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

           -----, adapted by.  Dracula.  London: Nelson/Longman, 1995. 48 pp. pb. Illus with stills from various vampire movies. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

           [Kantor, Hal.]  The Adult Version of Dracula.  Los Angeles: Calga Publishers, 1970. 190 pp. pb. Adult.

           Kelly, Jack, adapted by.  Dracula.  New York: Baronet Books, 1997. 239 pp. hb. boards. Great Illustrated Classics Series Illus. by Pablo Marcos.  Cover: Joseph Miralles.

           Rpt. in Frankenstein, Dracula & The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde.  New York: Playmore, Inc./Waldmar Publishers, 1999. 715 pp. hb. boards. Series: Great Illustrated Classics #271.

           Kershaw, Rosalie, adapted by.  Dracula.  New York: Interlyth, Ltd., 1973. 92 pp. pb. Illus. by Harry Borgman. Illustrations in purple. Cover: Dracula and bats with castle in background.

           Rpt. in: Great Tales of Horror and Suspense.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Interlyth, Inc., 1974, pp. 197-268. hb. large format  dj.  Illustrations in blue.

           Kilpatrick, Nancy.  Dracul: An Eternal Love Story.  San Diego: Lucard Publishing, 1998. 217 pp. tp.

           Knight, Amarantha [pseudonym of Nancy Kilpatrick].  The Darker Passions: Dracula.  New York: Masquerade Books, 1993. 309 pp. pb. Adult.

           Rpt.: Cambridge, MA: Circlet Press, 2001. 249 pp. tp.

           Kramer, Nora, abridged by.  Dracula.  New York: Scholastic, 1971. 462 pp. pb. Cover: Dracula with two rats and coffin.

           Rpt.:  New York: Scholastic, 1975. 462 pp. pb.

           Rpt.:  New York: Scholastic, n.d. [c. 1971]. 462 pp. pb. (Series: Apple Classics.) pb. 

           Cover: Dracula in formal evening dress.

           Lee, Earl.  Drakulya.  Tucson, AZ: See Sharp Press, 1994.  213 pp. tp.

The complete subtitle reads, "The Lost Journal of Mircea Drakulyu, Lord of the Undead, with Selection from Bram Stoker's "Journals of Jonathan & Mina Harker." Drakulya is essentially a retelling of the Stoker original from the Count's perspective, and assumed that he was Vlad Tepes.

           Lorenzo, Thomas, adapted by.  Dracula.  New York: Angel Hair Books, 1973. 8 pp. pb. Limited to 300 copies.

           Monette, Paul.  Nosferatu: The Vampyre.  New York: Avon, 1979. 172 pp. pb. Movie tie-in. Novelization of 1979 remake of Nosferatu.

                  Rpt.: London: Picador, 1979. 140 pp. tp.

           Mowat, Diane, retold by.  Dracula.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. 44 pp. Illus. by Paul Fisher Johnson. Cover: Black with face of Dracula by Paul Fisher Johnson.

           Rev. ed.: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 51 pp. Cover: Black with face of Dracula by Paul Fisher Johnson. Series: Oxford Bookworms Library #2.

           Needle, Jan, re-edited by.  Dracula. London: Walker Books, 2004. 335 pp. tp. Cover: Gary Blythe.Illust.: Gary Blythe.

           Needle, Jan, re-edited by.  Dracula. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press, 2004. 335 pp. hp. dj. Cover: Gary Blythe. Illust.: Gary Blythe.

           Owen, Steven, trans.  Dracula.  London: Heineman/Madrid: Itaca, 1985. 77 pp.  Parallel English/Spanish texts.

           Rice, Chris, retold by.  Dracula. London: Pearson Educational Limited Penguin, 2000. Penguin Readers, Level 4. 50 pp. pb. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula. Illustrated with stills from Dracula with Louis Jourdan.

           Rpt. in. Collected Classics. Vol. 8. Edinburgh: Pearson Educational Limited Penguin, 2000, pp. 119-79. tp. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula. Illustrated with stills from Dracula with Louis Jourdan.

           Rice, Earle.  Dracula.  Paramus, NJ: Globe Faeron Educational, 1995. 92 pp. pb. Issued with The Dracula Study Guide.

           Saberhagen, Fred, and James Hart.  Bram Stoker's Dracula.  New York: Signet, 1992. 190 pp. hb.

           Rpt.: New York: New American Library, 1992. 301 pp. pb. 

           Rpt.: London: Pan, 1992. 301 pp. pb.

           A novelization of Dracula based upon Francis Ford Coppola's 1992 feature film, Bram Stoker's Dracula.

           Savory, Gerald.  Count Dracula.  London: Corgi, 1977. 142 pp. pb.

           Sherman, D. M. adapted by.   Dracula.  London: Heineman Educational Books, 1973. ____pp.  (Series: Heineman Guided Readers: Intermediate Level, Book 31.)

           Slawkberg, Hagen.  Count Dracula: The Authorized Version.  Forfar, Scotland: Black Ace Books, 1998. hb. dj. Illus. Ronald Binme.

           Note: In spite of the title, this is not a text of Dracula; it is a "Dracula" novel borrowing heavily from the original text.

           Spinner, Stephanie, adapted by.  Dracula.  New York: Random House, 1982. 94 pp.  pb. (Series: Step-Up Adventures.)  Illustrated by Jim Spence. Cover: Dracula before castle.

           Reprinted: 1988, 1995.

           Rpt.:  New York: Random House, 1988. 94 pp.  pb. Series: Step-Up Classic Chillers. Illus. by Jim Spence.  Cover: Dracula seated with dog.  Cover by Lisa Falkenstern.        Boxed set with cassette.

           Rpt.:  New York: Random House, 1982. 94 pp.  pb. Series: Bull-Eye Step-Into Classics.  Cover: Dracula before staircase by Tim Barrall.

           Stocks, Mike, adapted by.  Dracula.  London: Usborne Publisher, 1995. 96 pp. pb

           Rev. ed. London: Usborne House, 2002. 141 pp, pb. Illus. by Barry Jones. Series: Usborne Classics.

           Swanscombe, Wendy.  Vamp.  London: Nexus, 2003. 244 pp. pb. Adult.

           Tarner, Margaret, adapted by.  Dracula.  London: Heineman Education Books, 1982. 57 pp. Series: Heineman Graded Readers. Intermediate Level.

           Rpt.: 1992. Cover: Youthful Dracula.

           Rpt. London: Heinemann Elt, 1998. 61 pp. pb. Cover: Youthful Dracula. Distributed with accompanying cassette tape.

           -----.  London: Heineman Education Books, 1982. 63 pp. pb. Series: Heineman Graded readers. Intermediate Level.  Cover: Dracula.  Illustrated by Kay Dixey.

           Teitelbaum, Mike, adapted by.  Dracula.  Racine, WI: Western Publishing Company, 1992. 91 pp. pb. Illustrated by Art Ruiz. 

           Note: An Official Universal Studios Monsters volume with text adapted from the 1931 movie script.

           Includes Dracula poster.

           Turvey, John, adapted by.  Dracula.  London: Longman, 1978.  90 pp.  pb. (Series: New Method Supplementary Readers. Stage 3.)  Cover: Louis Jourdan as Dracula (no border).

           Rpt.: 1986.

        -----, adapted by.  Dracula.  Brent Hill, Essex, UK: Longman Group, 1987. 71 pp. pb. (Series: Longman Classics. Stage 3.)  Cover: Picture of Louis Jourdan as Dracula. Illustrated with stills from Dracula with Louis Jourdan (blue border).

           Reprinted: 1993

           Rpt.: 1993. 71 pp. pb. (Series: Longman Classics: stage 3.)

           -----.  Dracula.  London: Longman Group UK Limited, 1999. 112 pp. pb. Cover: Louis Jourdan as Dracula. Bilingual English-Chinese edition licensed for sale exclusively in the Peoples Republic of China.

           Vaughn, Susan, adapted by. Dracula. Taipei: Amen, 2001. 223 pp. tp. Bilingual Chinese/English edition.

           Wharry, David, retold by.  Dracula.  London: Penguin English, 1993. 64 pp. pb.  Series: Ready Readers. Level 3. Illus. by David Cuzik. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

           -----.  Dracula.  London: Penguin English, 1993. 64 pp. pb. Series: Ready Readers. Level 4. Illus. by David Cuzik. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

           Rpt.: 1998. Illus. by David Cuzik. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

           -----.  Harlow, Essex, UK: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998. 64 pp. pb. Illus. by David Cuzik. Cover: Christopher Lee as Dracula.

           Wood, Leigh Hope, adapted by.  Dracula.  Chicago: Masterwork Books, 1995. 189 pp. hb.  (Series: The Young Collector’s Illustrated Classics.) Cover: Dracula in rose-colored cloud.

           Wynne-Jones, Tim, retold by. Illustrated by Laszlo Gal. Toronto: Key PorterKids, 1997. 44 pp. hb.        Classic Horror Series. Cover/dust jacket: Nosferatu-like Dracula with Castle.

E. Graphic Arts Editions

The most extensive artistic interpretations of the text have occurred in the various graphic art adaptations of Dracula, the first of which appeared in 1953. The finest of the graphic art editions is the 1992 adaptation of Roy Thomas and Mike Mignola and based on the Francis Ford Coppola movie, Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Originally issued in a four-part series by Topps, it was reprinted as a graphic novel in both British and American editions and translated into several foreign languages.

Graphic arts editions are listed below alphabetically by the name of the persons most responsible for the adaptation of the text, the production of graphic art books generally being a collaboration of writer and artist. .

Binder, Otto, and Craig Tennis, adapted by. Dracula.  New York: Ballantine Books, 1966. 159 pp. pb. Cover

                  Graphic Art by Alden McWilliams. Introduction by Christopher Lee.

                  Rpt.: New  York: Manor Books, 1975. 159 pp.  pb. Cover:

           Farr, Naunerle, abridged by.  Dracula.  West Haven, CT: Pendulum Press, 1973. 61 pp. pb. (Series: Pendulum Now Age Illustrated Books.)  Black and white graphic art by Nestor Redondo. Cover: Dracula flying.

       Boxed set with student activity book & cassette tape.

           Variant cover: Scenes from Dracula with additional text: "Radio Shack 'reading is fun.'"

           Reprinted: 1976 (Marvel), 1981 (Happy House Books), 1981 (French), 1982 (Spanish), 1984 (Academic Industries). 

           Rpt.  New York: Marvel Comics, 1976.  48 pp. (Series: Marvel Classics Comics, no. 9.)  Graphic art by Nestor Redondo.  Cover: Dracula with woman in his arms. A colorized version.

           Rpt.:  [New York: N.Y.?], Happy House Books, 1981/1973. 61 pp. pb. (Series: Picture Classics

           Cover: Dracula with wolves by Ken Barr.

           Rpt.: Winston-Salem, NC: Starstream Products, 1980). 61 pp. pb. Cover: Dracula flying.

           Rpt.:  West Haven, CT: Academic Industries, 1984. 61 pp. pb. (Series: Pocket Classics.)  Cover: Dracula flying.

           Rpt: Bridlington, UK: Peter Haddock, 1981. 61p. pb. Cover: Dracula flying.

           Rpt.: Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services, 1994.  62p. pb. Cover: Dracula flying. Published with cassette tape produced by Lake Education.

           Rpt: Orange, CA: Gateway Educational Products, 1994. 61p. pb. Hooked-on-Phonics Classic Achievement series. Cover Dracula and female by Luis Dominguez.

           Fernandez, Fernando, adapted by.  Dracula.  New York: Catalan Communications, 1984. 96 pp. pb. Large format. Cover: Face of Dracula.

           Rpt. alternate cover: Red with gold lettering.

           Rpt. as: Bram Stoker's Dracula. New York: Del Rey, 2005. 96 pp.  pb. Large format

           Hippolyte, adapted by.  Dracula. Book 1. Rockville Centre, NY: Heavy Metal, 2005. 56p. hb. Large format. Reprinted from the original French edition published by Editions Glénat (2003)

  Jenkins, Martin.  "Bram Stoker's Dracula."  In Martin Jenkins. Informania: Vampires. London: Walker Books, 1998, pp. 5-20. hb.

Rpt.: London: Walker Books, 2000. 92 pp. tp.

Rpt.: Cambridge (Massachusetts): Candlewick Press, 2000. 92 pp. tp.

           Jones, Steve, Robert Schnieder, and Craig Taillefer.  Dracula.  Nos. 1-4.  Malibu, CA: Eternity Comics, 1989-90.  Additional articles:  "Vlad Tepes," parts I & II, by Steve Jones. " Bram Stoker" by Steve Jones.  "Vampire Bibliography and Filmography" by Steve Jones.  Graphic art version later reprinted as a graphic novel.

           Jones, Stephen Philip, Robert Schnieders, & Craig Taillefer, adapted by.  Dracula.  Malibu, CA: Eternity Comics, 1990. 128 pp. tp.

           Combines the four issues of Eternity’s mini-series of Dracula.

           Muth, John L.  Dracula: A Symphony in Moonlight and Nightmares. New York: Marvel Comics, 1986. Unpaged. hb. Large format.

           Rpt.:. New York: Marvel Comics. tp.  Large format.

Rpt.: New York: NRM Publishing, 1993. 80p pp. hb. Large format.

  Rpt.; New York: NRM Publishing, 1993. 80p. tp. Large format

O'Neill, Kevin. “Dracula” In Legend: Horror Classics. London: Legend Publishing [U.K.], n.d. [1975], pp. 1-11.

Note: Bram Stoker’s Dracula. CBS Television, 1973. Dir: Dan Curtis. Scr: Richard Matheson. Dracula: Jack Palance. b. Poster: Christopher Lee.

           Schick, Alice, adapted by.  Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; Bram Stoker's Dracula.  Book Club ed.,  New York: Delacorte Press, 1980. [40] pp. hb. Large format.

Schick, Alice, and Joel Schick, adapted by.  Dracula.  New York: Delacorte Press, 1980. 44 pp. hb. Large format.

           Reprinted: 1981, 1983

           Rpt.: New York: Delacorte Press, 1981. 44 pp. pb.

           Rpt.:  New York: Delacorte Press, 1983. 44 pp. hb. Cover:  Dracula in graveyard.

           Skinn, Dez and Paul Neary.  "Horror of Dracula."  In Dracula Comics Special. No. 1. London: Quality Communications, n.d., pp. 1-28.

           Note: Black & white graphic art adaptation.

           Thomas, Roy, and Dick Giodano.  "Dracula."  Pts. 1-5.  Dracula Lives! Marvel Comics, 1974-75. Nos. 5-8, 10-11.

           Note: Serialized black-and-white graphic art adaptation.

Thomas, Roy, and Dick Giodano.  "Dracula."  Pt 7 "Death Be Not Proud".  The Legion of Monsters. No. 1. New York: Marvel Comics, Sept. 1975.

           Thomas, Roy, and Dick Giodano. Stoker's Dracula. No. 1-4. New York: Marvel, 2004-05. Note: Issue #1 reprints material from Dracula Lives! #5-8, and issue #2 reprints material from Dracula Lives 10-11 and Legion of Monsters 1.  Issues 3-4 prints material originally proiduced in the 1970s but never before published.

           Thomas, Roy, Mike Mignola, & John Nyberg, adapted by.  Bram Stoker's Dracula.  No. 1-4.  New York: Topps Comics. Limited series. 4 issues.

 Thomas, Roy, Mike Mignola, & John Nyberg, adapted by.  Bram Stoker's Dracula, No. 1.  New York: Topps Comics.      

           Note: Crimson foil edition. 500 copies.

Thomas, Roy, Mike Mignola, & John Nyberg, adapted by.  Bram Stoker's Dracula. New York: Topps, 1993. 120 pp. tp.  Graphic art version. Combines the four issues of the Topps’ Bram Stoker’s Dracula mini-series.

Rpt.: New York: Topps/ Star Edition, 1993. 120 pp. tp.

Rpt.: New York: Topps/Diamond Comics Distributors, 1993. 120 pp. tp.

Rpt.: London: Titan, 1993. 120 pp. tp. New end pages.

           Note: Also German, French, and Italian editions.

Thomas, Roy, Mike Mignola, & John Nyberg, adapted by.  "Bram Stoker's Dracula." Parts 1-5. In Dracula. Dark Horse International [UK], 1995. Issues 1-5.

           [Zone, Ray, and Tony Alderson.]  "Dracula."  Eerie [Avon Periodicals/I. W. Enterprises]  12  (August 1953).

           Note: The first comic-book adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel. Rpt. in (3-D) as: Dracula 3-D.

           Zone, Ray, and Tony Aldenson.  Dracula 3-D  [The 3-D Zone].  1 (1992). 25 pp. Cover: Chuck Roblin.

           Note: This adaptation recasts the text and artwork of the the first comic book version of Dracula (Eerie. Avon Periodicals. # 12 [Aug. 1953]) in a three dimensional format.

F. Study Guides 

Douthat, Ross, and David Hopson. Dracula/Bram Stoker. New York, NY: Spark Publishing, 2002. 73 pp. pb. Ser.: Sparknotes.

Dracula Activity Book. Orange, CA: Gateway Educational Products, 1994. 16 p.. pb. Designed to go with the graphic arts edition of Dracula as abridged by Naunerie Farr and Illus. by Nestor Redondo as published by Gateway Educational Products, (1994) and distributed as part of the Hooked on Phonic Classic Achievement series.

Dracula Brain Games. Orange, CA: Gateway Educational Products, 1994. 8 p.. pb. Designed to go with the graphic arts edition of Dracula as abridged by Naunerie Farr and Illus. by Nestor Redondo as published by Gateway Educational Products (1994), and distributed as part of the Hooked on Phonic Classic Achievement series.

Howes, Marjorie, and Pat Smith. A Study Guide to Bram Stoker's Dracula. Los Angeles: Audio Books, 1994. 21 pp. pb. Distributed with audio cassette of text narrated by F. Murray Abraham.

Kaufman, Robert. Bram Stoker's Dracula. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1998. 91 pp. pb. ser.: Monarch Notes.

Rice, Earle, Jr. Dracula Study Guide. Paramus, NJ: Globe Faeron Educational, 1995. 49 pp. pb. Large format. Illus. by Karen Loccisano. Issued for use with Dracula, adapted by Earle Rice, Jr.

Study Guide: Dracula. Costa Mesa, CA: Saddleback Publishing, 1999. 48 pp. pb. Large format.

Umland, Samuel J. Dracula Notes. Lincoln, NB: Cliff Notes, 1983. 77 pp. pb. Series: Cliff Notes.